Demonstratives kaplan pdf
Second and third person pronouns, and simple and complex demonstratives—both singular and plural—are generally taken to fall into this category. There have been a number of suggestions on how we should represent the semantic meanings of indexicals and demonstratives. Kaplan’s theory, the role of what we are calling meanings is played by what he calls characters. Computational Linguistics Volume 26, Number 2 which one determines that he and it are the man and the car is, accordingly, a deictic inference. Kaplan’s Semantics for Indexicals (Deixes) & Demonstratives Kaplan's most influential contribution to the philosophy of language is his semantic analysis of indexicals and demonstratives, outlined (in progressively greater detail) in a series of articles: "On The Logic of Demonstratives," "Demonstratives," "Afterthoughts" etc. Kaplan (1977) argues that demonstratives differ from deﬁnites and pronouns in having a rigid, wide-scope interpretation.
the Kaplan-inspired indexing solution Fodor proposed to us, but offer a Fodor-friendly account of the de-monstratives in the language of thought in its stead, building on our account of demonstrative pronouns in English. The proper use of demonstratives for textual reference has in fact been identified as a big challenge not only for language learners but for native writers as well (Geisle, Kaufer, & Steinberg, 1985). Kaplan's work on demonstratives spans many essays and has changed over the years. As we are only concerned with demonstratives, I make the modification to keep the discussion short and simple.
that the indexical component of the demonstratives directly refers to the referent of the demonstrative description, as in the so-called “direct reference theory” proposed by Kaplan (1989), as well as in others approaches (NUNBERG, 1993, 2004; KING, 2001; ELBOURNE, 2008, among others). In order to block controversial predictions of 2D semantics (The Nesting Problem), Chalmers and Rabern (2014) propose adding an additional constriction called 'the liveness constraint' in definitions of epistemic modals.
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First treated by Kaplan as directly referential, demonstratives have recently been analyzed as quantifiers by King, and the choice between these two approaches is a matter of ongoing controversy. He is best known for his work on demonstratives, propositions, and reference in intensional contexts. Wittgenstein’s Methodology, the Augustinian Conception of Language, and Language qua Institution Primary reading: Wittgenstein. Then, I explore the most common suggestions, for instance, as those put forward by Braun and Dever. Fregean views of referring expressions— according to which such expressions have, not only reference, but also sense— have been subjected to intense criticism over the last few decades. demonstratives: expressions that need to be supplemented in some way in order that they secure values in contexts.
Journal of Philosophical Lgico , 8(1):81 98, 1979.
of fact, the theory of true demonstratives that Kaplan explicitly presents (from here on I will call it 'Kaplan's theory') is inconsistent with this identification, because it does not assign a single unique character to 'that'. At the end, it is assumed a position as to which of the theories discussed has a descriptive and explanatory scope for further elucidated the semantics of complex statements. Let's call it Kaplan's Theory.4 On Kaplan's Theory, demonstrations are put with demonstratives; together, they make up the things that refer (relative to contexts). Introduction This study of indexicals not only can shed light on general theories of meaning, but also can give some insight into matters such as belief, knowledge, first-person perspective, personal identity and consciousness1.
Indexicals and demonstratives Words that refer to different things, depending on the context in which they’re used. In this paper I attempt once more to solve the thorny issue of the interaction of semantic and pragmatic aspects in the interpretation of attitude reports.I will here approach the subject in a sort of (relatively) “naive” way. In order to capture our intuitions about the logical consistency of sentences and the logical validity of arguments, a semantics for a natural language has to allow for the fact that different occurrences of a single bare demonstrative, such as “this”, may refer to different objects.
Kaplan (1989a) insists that natural languages do not contain displacing devices that operate on character-such displacing devices are called monsters. Another way to accommodate demonstratives is to include demon- strata in contexts. First, since the notions of mental indexicals and demonstratives are derived from those of linguistic indexicals and demonstratives, we need to start with a description of the latter forms. But it is not obvious how to formulate a semantic theory in order to achieve this result.
Since the late 1970s, the orthodox view of complex 'that' phrases (e.g., 'that woman eating a granola bar') has been that they are contextually sensitive devices of direct reference. Abstract Directed attention plays an important role in human information processing; its fatigue, in turn, has far- reaching consequences. Thus Kaplan's evolving views on indexical reference suggest—if only in broad outlines—much of what a theory of context must contain; in so doing, they set the stage for the theory to be developed in the final chapter. Get Free The Philosophy Of Words Textbook and unlimited access to our library by created an account. This survey reviews two types of approaches to demonstratives: Kaplan's direct reference treatment of demonstratives and other indexicals, and recent challenges to Kaplan's approach that focus on less obviously context‐sensitive uses of demonstratives. In "Demonstratives", David Kaplan argues that indexicals and other expressions have a sort of meaning, character, that is distinct from their more commonly recognized sort of meaning, content.
Demonstratives, joint attention, and the emergence of grammar HOLGER DIESSEL* Abstract Drawing on recent work in developmental and comparative psychology, this paper argues that demonstratives function to coordinate the interlo-cutors’ joint focus of attention, which is one of the most basic functions of human communication. Now, according to a view of David Kaplan's, one I will presuppose here, indexicals and demonstratives are directly referential, i.e.
An indexical's referent and content are determined by its linguistic meaning (character) and such contextual factors as the time, location, and intentions of the speaker. 1A distinction between the linguistic and the contextual meaning of demonstratives is made in Kaplan (1989a). I will not be using Kaplan's formal logic because doing so would go beyond the scope of this essay.
The thesis aims to demonstrate how an epistemic operator K can be added to the Logic of Demonstratives. His philosophical work focuses on the philosophy of language, logic, metaphysics, epistemology and the philosophy of Frege and Russell.
demonstratives in communication: an account of the contents of the thoughts expressed and of the assertions made (Section 3). He is the Hans Reichenbach Professor of Scientific Philosophy at the UCLA Department of Philosophy. From this, I point out the impossibility, in principle, of a non-referential treatment for context sensitive expressions, once it's defended that the role of the expressed proposition is to explain all the propositional attitudes attached to it, and why Heck's objection doesn't apply to Kaplan's view. demonstratives, especially given the textbooks and teaching materials that tend to focus on the deictic uses of the demonstratives.
I will be drawing on his later work in Themes from Kaplan, Demonstratives.
Adams, Nathan Salmon, and Scott Soames, this book discusses and expands upon the work of David Kaplan and provides essential new perspectives on the philosophy of language. For similar reasons, the orthodox lambda-calculus-based semantics for variable binding is argued to be monstrous.
Moreover, the author has also used the word context by basing on ideal assumptions of situations. For example, a hand gesture or the direction toward which the speaker’s nose or eyes are pointing. Now some may think that David Kaplan (1989a,b) has already given a more than satisfactory semantics for demonstratives, and that there is no need for a new one. David Kaplan’s discussion of monsters is confined to section 7 of Demonstratives (Kaplan 1977: 510-2).The main thesis of that section, namely that monsters do not occur in English and ‘could not be added to it’, has notoriously been contentious. 2.2 Demonstratives Kaplan (1977) argues that unlike the deﬁnite the which interacts with the rest of the sentence to indirectly refer to an entity, the demonstrative that is a case of a direct reference which rigidly refers to one speciﬁc entity regardless of scope or the content of the remaining sentence. Although Kaplan is not always clear on this matter, it seems to be his view that a demonstrative assumes a complete character only when supplemented by a particular demonstration.
The original formulation of the two principles is different, as they are intended to cover all indexicals, not just demonstratives. 2015 Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society - Draft paper and podcast of Dominic Gregory's talk to the Aristotelian Society on 26 January 2015: 'Visual Content, Expectations, and the Outside World'. I think this is a consequence of the fact that each is making rapid progress, but it has as a consequence that it has become less routine for someone who is doing cutting-edge work on central topics in the one to also be doing cutting-edge work on central topics in the other.
semantics of complex demonstratives take as a basis for their analyzes the principles of the first or second. Section 3 argues that they are all vitiated by the same shortcomings, and yield incorrect results of ‘truth in virtue of character’ and entailment. 2 Kaplan style semantics 2.1 Context and circumstance By Kaplan style semantics I mean a semantic theory permitting a distinction between two kinds of contexual factors: in Kaplan’s terminology, used here, contexts (of utterance) and circumstances (of evaluation). A difficult and long paper, but incredibly important if you are interested in indexicals and demonstratives.
Demonstratives, joint attention, and the evolution of grammar Drawing on recent work in developmental and comparative psychology, this paper argues that demonstratives function to coordinate the interloc’ joint focus of attention, which is one of the most basic functions of human communication. Demonstratives An Essay on the Semantics, Logic, Metaphysics, and Epistemology of Demonstratives and Other Indexicals David Kaplan1 1 This paper was prepared for and read (with omissions) at a symposium on Demon stratives at the March 1977 meetings of the Pacific Division of the Anierican Philosophical Association. This mirrors Kaplan's (1989a) crucial observation for 'true demonstratives' as directly referential concepts. References Abstract This paper provides an overview of the form, meaning, and use of deictic expressions from a cross-linguistic point of view. Demonstratives and Their Linguistic Meanings DAVID BRAUN University of Rochester In this paper, I present a new semantics for demonstratives. ways an analogous position about demonstratives in natural language was wrong (as articulated in Kaplan (1989b), and discussed in his (1989a)). We propose a two-step method for studying the history of political thought roughly in line with the contextualism of the Cambridge School.
New York: Oxford University Press, 481–563.
Demonstratives in Discourse Demonstratives in Discourse HENK ZEEVAT 1999-01-01 00:00:00 There are two influential theories that deal with the role of the context in determining the meaning of sentences: Kaplan's logic of demonstratives and Kamp's discourse representation theory. An Essay on the Semantics, Logic, Metaphysics, and Epistemology of Demonstratives and Other Indexicals, disponibile anche su internet. exemplified by the seminal work of Montague, Scott, Kaplan and Lewis Today this role of utterance context is perhaps best-known through the three-level theory of meaning of Kaplan's 'Demonstratives'. Meanwhile, linguists and psychologists working from a variety of perspectives have gathered a wealth of data on the form, meaning, and use of demonstratives in many languages. Kaplan claims that (2) is true in every context in every structure appropriate for demonstratives.